General population is only minimally exposed to the fields generated by base stations

Base stations with a wide coverage area use a clearly higher transmit power than mobile phones. Antennas with a high transmit power must be mounted in locations which prevent people from finding themselves in their proximity. Small base stations intended for indoor use usually have a transmit power roughly equal to that of mobile phones, allowing them to be safely installed closer to where people live. In 2014, STUK issued instructions for mobile phone operators on finding safe locations for base stations.

The general population is only minimally exposed to the fields generated by base stations because radiation rapidly diminishes in intensity as the distance to the base station increases. Exposure to radiation emitted by base stations in apartments, for example, is typically around one ten-thousandth and at most one-hundredth of the exposure limit. The most recent measurement campaign conducted by STUK (STUK-TR-16) surveyed the extent to which people are exposed to radio frequency radiation in apartments located in the vicinity of base stations. At its highest level, exposure was found to be approximately half a per cent of the maximum value.

A base station mounted on the roof or exterior wall of a building does not expose resi-dents to radiation to any appreciable extent, as the antennas mostly radiate horizontally. Antennas must be directed so that exposure to radiation in adjoining buildings clearly remains below the exposure limits.

The volume of wireless data communications has skyrocketed over the past few years. Despite this, people are not exposed to radiation to any significant extent. Base stations representing the various systems (GSM, 3G and 4G) generate an equivalent level of radiation. In addition, in order to cover local shadow areas, antennas which are intended for indoor and which have an extremely low transmit power are increasingly being put into service.

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